Those diagnosed with schizophrenia have a high risk of suicide, which is particularly greater in younger patients as they may not have an insight into the serious effects that the disorder can have on their lives.
There may be a common ground of inner distress culminating in self-directed harm in a Münchausen patient.
Alternatively, interpretations based on the supposed lethality of a self-harm may not give clear indications as to its intent: life risking behaviour may have no suicidal intent, whilst seemingly superficial cuts may have been a suicide attempt.
Studies of individuals with developmental disabilities (such as intellectual disability) have shown self-harm being dependent on environmental factors such as obtaining attention or escape from demands.
Many self-harmers are very self-conscious of their wounds and scars and feel guilty about their behaviour, leading them to go to great lengths to conceal their behaviour from others.The behaviour involves deliberate tissue damage that is usually performed without suicidal intent. The term self-mutilation is also sometimes used, although this phrase evokes connotations that some find worrisome, inaccurate, or offensive.The most common form of self-harm involves cutting of the skin using a sharp object, e. This differs from the common definition of self-harm, as damage is inflicted for a specific secondary purpose.The desire to self-harm is a common symptom of borderline personality disorder.People with other mental disorders may also self-harm, including those with depression, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, and several personality disorders.Other approaches involve avoidance techniques, which focus on keeping the individual occupied with other activities, or replacing the act of self-harm with safer methods that do not lead to permanent damage.Self-harm (SH), also referred to as self-injury (SI), self-inflicted violence (SIV), nonsuicidal self injury (NSSI) or self-injurious behaviour (SIB), refers to a spectrum of behaviours where demonstrable injury is self-inflicted.There are a number of different methods that can be used to treat self-harm and which concentrate on either treating the underlying causes or on treating the behaviour itself.When self-harm is associated with depression, antidepressant drugs and therapy may be effective.The onset of puberty has also been shown to be the onset of self-harm including the onset of sexual activity; this is because the pubertal period is a period of neurodevelopmental vulnerability and comes with an increased risk of emotional disorders and risk-taking behaviors.Genetics may contribute to the risk of developing other psychological conditions, such as anxiety or depression, which could in turn lead to self-harming behaviour.