Pollen analysis, or palynology, involves the microscopic examination of fossil pollen grains in stratified peat and lake deposits.
From this, scientists can establish pollen diagrams (describing the relative abundance of different pollen-producing plants at a given point in time) and floral time charts (showing how climate and flora changed over time).
Seriation is an archaeological technique involving the description of stylistic changes in artifacts and of changes in the popularity of distinct styles in order to accurately describe the sequence of variation over time.
The seriation of stratified deposits permits archaeologists to assess the relative age of particular styles.
Igneous masses are dated according to whether they caused metamorphism in the surrounding rock (proof of emplacement in preexisting rock) or whether sediments were deposited on them after they were formed.
In geology, a master stratigraphic sequence for a particular region is built up by correlating the strata from different locations with one another.
This volume, again a benchmark for 14C dating, critically reflects on the method and data that underpins, in so many cases, the validity of the chronologies used to understand the prehistoric archaeological record.
dating, the determination of the age of an object, of a natural phenomenon, or of a series of events.
Stratigraphic dating assumes that the lower layers in any particular profile are older than the upper layers in that profile ( "the law of superposition" ) and that an object cannot be older than the materials of which it is composed.
This volume is a major revision and expansion of Taylor’s seminal book Radiocarbon Dating: An Archaeological Perspective.
It covers the major advances and accomplishments of the 14C method in archaeology and analyzes factors that affect the accuracy and precision of 14C-based age estimates.
The three-age system devised by the Danish archaeologist Christian Thomsen in the 1830s made use of technological criteria.
According to this system, humans passed through three distinct stages of technological development, based on the primary material used to manufacture tools and weapons: the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.