The Hutterite community responded by abandoning Dakota and moving 17 of the 18 existing American colonies to the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
Since the death of their eponym Jakob Hutter in 1536, the beliefs of the Hutterites, especially living in a community of goods and absolute pacifism, have resulted in hundreds of years of diaspora in many countries.Today, approximately three of every four Hutterite colonies are in Canada (mostly in Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan), with almost all of the remainder in the United States (primarily South Dakota and Montana).The total Hutterite population in both countries is generally estimated between forty and fifty thousand.Some of the abandoned structures from the first wave still stand in South Dakota.In 1942, alarmed at the influx of Dakota Hutterites buying copious tracts of land, the province of Alberta passed the Communal Properties Act, severely restricting the expansion of the Dariusleut and Lehrerleut colonies.After sending scouts to North America in 1873 along with a Mennonite delegation, three groups totaling 1,265 individuals migrated to North America between 18 in response to the new Russian military service law.Of these, 400 identified as Eigentümler (literally, 'owner') and shared a community of goods. Named for the leader of each group (the Schmiedeleut, Dariusleut, and Lehrerleut, leut being based on the German word for people), they settled initially in the Dakota Territory; later, Dariusleut colonies were established in central Montana.The act was repealed in 1973, allowing Hutterites to purchase land.This act resulted in the establishment of a number of new colonies in British Columbia and Saskatchewan and at the same time there was expansion into Montana and eastern Washington in the 1940s and 1950s.It is interesting to note that Hutterite children are more likely to develop asthma compared to Amish children.Hutterite colonies are male-managed with women participating in roles such as cooking, medical decisions, and selection and purchase of fabric for clothing. The two top-level leaders are the Minister and the Secretary. The Minister also holds the position as President in matters related to the incorporation of the legal business entity associated with each colony.